Chargeback Disputes #1 – Guilty Until Proven Innocent
Let’s start by defining a “Chargeback” – A chargeback (also known as a reversal) is a form of customer protection that is provided by the card issuing banks, which allows their cardholders to file a complaint regarding fraudulent transactions on their statement.
The first thing to understand about a chargeback is this – the moment you begin accepting card payments you are at risk. The card issuing banks are determined to protect their cardholders and even if you (as the merchant) do everything right, there is a good chance you’re going to lose your dispute. Does this mean you should just roll over? Absolutely not. But you must always remain aware that the risk is there, that it’s real and that it’s a question of when and not if.
What is the Risk?
The risk is losing the products or services that have already been sold, the payment, the fees incurred for payment processing, additional money for chargeback penalty fees and possibly even commissions for currency conversions. To top it all off, merchant accounts receiving too many chargebacks will end up labeled by credit card companies as fraudulent; which is potentially damaging to the image and the existence of your business.
What is the Process?
A chargeback is initiated when a cardholder files a complaint with their card issuing bank and their bank begins an investigation. What does this mean for you, the merchant? It means that if you do not (or cannot) prove the legitimacy of the transaction being disputed to the card issuing bank’s satisfaction, they will refund the original value to their cardholder and take back the entire value of the transaction from your bank account, plus an additional fee. The additional fee can range from $0 – $100 depending on the merchant bank sponsoring your processing platform.
What are the Results?
Credit card issuing banks take chargebacks seriously – not only do they levy fees, but they can hold merchant remittance (deposits to your account from your payment processing terminal) for up to three months to cover the determined fraud. They may also decide to increase your processing rates if they choose to label your account “risky.”
- While most banks have a policy against handling disputes that are more than six months old, your sales may be reversible for up to two years. If your transactions are more vulnerable to chargebacks, you should be saving your documentation for two years.
- A cardholder can dispute a transaction up to 3 times – even if you win the first dispute, there is no guarantee that you will win again.
As a credit card holder, we all appreciate that this protection exists. With identity theft and fraud on the rise, none of us wants to get hit with paying for items and services we didn’t receive or purchase. However, at the end of the day, someone is left “holding the bag” and the harsh truth of the matter is that it’s most often the merchant.
The most common circumstances and reasons for a merchant to receive chargebacks are:
- Fraudulent Transactions
This occurs when it’s determined that the credit card was used without the authorization and consent of the cardholder. In such cases, the merchant is held solely responsible.
- Credit Not Processed
This is when the customer reports having returned the merchandise and requested a refund, but has not received a credit to their account. In these situations, merchants are also held liable for the charges.
- Item Not Received
This is a common reason for chargebacks, particularly for online businesses. It happens when the customer complains that they have not received the item they paid for by credit card. And again, the merchant is charged accordingly.
- Technical Problems
Chargeback requests can also be a result of technical problems during the payment processes. One example would be when a technical problem between the issuing bank and the merchant leads to the cardholder being charged twice for the same transaction (referred to as duplicate processing). As a merchant, you want to be aware of any problems occurring during the authorization process and watch your batch settlements to be sure they balance accordingly.